Geography > Hispania


Punic Wars - Punic Wars Decoration


During the Punic Wars, Hispania (the Iberian Peninsula, comprising modern-day Spain and Portugal) played a significant role as a battleground between the Roman Republic and the Carthaginian Empire. Hispania was abundant in natural resources such as silver, copper, tin, iron, and agricultural products. Control over these resources was crucial for both Rome and Carthage to sustain their military campaigns. Hispania's strategic location facilitated trade between the Mediterranean world and Atlantic Europe. It was a hub for the exchange of goods and commodities, making it economically significant for both powers.

Carthage had established colonies and trading posts along the eastern and southern coasts of Hispania since the 6th century BC. These colonies served as bases for Carthaginian commercial activities and military operations. Carthaginian generals, notably Hamilcar Barca and his successors, undertook military campaigns to expand Carthaginian territory in Hispania. They conquered indigenous tribes and established alliances to strengthen Carthaginian control over the region.

First Punic War:

Rome's involvement in Hispania began during the First Punic War (264–241 BC) when Roman forces intervened in the conflict between Carthage and the city of Saguntum, located on the eastern coast of Hispania. This intervention marked the beginning of Rome's expansion into Hispania.

Second Punic War:

The Second Punic War (218–201 BC) saw intense fighting in Hispania as Carthaginian generals, including Hannibal Barca, attempted to secure alliances and reinforcements from Iberian tribes to challenge Rome's dominance in Italy. Roman general Scipio Africanus launched a series of successful campaigns in Hispania, defeating Carthaginian forces and their allies. His victories at the Battles of Baecula (208 BC) and Ilipa (206 BC) weakened Carthaginian influence in the region. After defeating Carthage in Hispania, Rome gradually extended its control over the peninsula, incorporating it into the Roman Republic as the provinces of Hispania Citerior (Nearer Spain) and Hispania Ulterior (Farther Spain). Romanization efforts ensued, with the spread of Latin language, culture, and institutions.


Hispania became an integral part of the Roman Empire, serving as a vital source of resources, manpower, and military recruits. It played a significant role in Roman politics, economy, and military strategy. The Roman conquest of Hispania led to cultural exchanges between Rome and the indigenous peoples of the peninsula, resulting in the development of a distinct Roman-Hispanic culture. In summary, Hispania was a crucial theater of conflict during the Punic Wars, witnessing battles and campaigns that shaped the balance of power between Rome and Carthage in the western Mediterranean and ultimately contributing to the expansion of Roman hegemony in the region


+ Geography Links


Primary Sources

Secondary Sources

Sabalico Logo
Sabalytics Logo
World Map Logo
rStatistics Logo
Time Zone Logo
Galaxy View Logo
Periodic Table Logo
My Location Logo
Weather Track Logo
Sprite Sheet Logo
Barcode Generator Logo
Test Speed Logo
Website Tools Logo
Image Tools Logo
Color Tools Logo
Text Tools Logo
Finance Tools Logo
File Tools Logo
Data Tools Logo
History of Humanity - History Archive Logo
History of Humanity - History Mysteries Logo
History of Humanity - Ancient Mesopotamia Logo
History of Humanity - Egypt History Logo
History of Humanity - Persian Empire Logo
History of Humanity - Greek History Logo
History of Humanity - Alexander the Great Logo
History of Humanity - Roman History Logo
History of Humanity - Punic Wars Logo
History of Humanity - Golden Age of Piracy Logo
History of Humanity - Revolutionary War Logo